Chile is currently undergoing a constituent process. This process, formally initiated through a referendum in which the vote for a new constitution won by an overwhelming majority, has created enormous expectations of political and social transformation. However, achieving that goal will depend less on the constitution as such and more on the legal praxis and political process developing under its influence. In that regard, constitutional comparison and a methodological openness towards social sciences could be important resources when analyzing how new constitutions have managed to positively influence institutional practices capable of reconfiguring the conditions of existence of political communities.